At the beginning of the century, women enjoyed few of the legal, social, or political rights that are now taken for granted in western countries: Women were expected to remain subservient to their fathers and husbands.
Les Coquettes et leurs toilettes: Octave Uzanne's Discourse on Femininity and the 'Death of Politeness' in Nineteenth Century Paris by Emily Drumsta, Brown University '06 We have written this work, after our inspiration, as a simple idle tour across society, its manners, and its researches in the art of clothing.
It is not, properly speaking, either a history of our usages or a tableau of Parisian elegances; it is rather a series of views of the frivolous life of this century.
One might say Uzanne was determined to document not only feminine fashion, but femininity itself. The Frenchwoman of the Century can France nineteenth century art and society essay be seen as a kind of historical artifact, one strand of the web-like discourse that came to structure femininity in the nineteenth century.
Part fashion magazine, part society page, part historical account, part ethnographic study — The Frenchwoman of the Century is an essential relic for any scholar of nineteenth-century Paris, not only because it documents popular attitudes surrounding social, political and economic changes, but also as a primary source illustrating the nineteenth-century compulsion to write and document the feminine, and how such documentation was executed.
Neoclassicism and Decadence Under the Directory In this first chapter, Uzanne focuses on the rising popularity of a nostalgia for the Greco-Roman past or rather, that past re-imagined during the years of the Directory, and how that nostalgia affected customs of dress and behavior amongst upper-class Frenchwomen.
Uzanne cites recent historical events and describes specific choices in toilette in an attempt to explain why and how this neo-classicism took hold of popular culture in the first place.
According to Uzanne, the execution of Robespierre on July 27th or le 9 Thermidor, by the Revolutionary calendar signified for Parisians not only the end of the Reign of Terror, but also the beginning of what was hoped would be a phase of relative peace.
Ensuring this peace, however, became a matter not of learning from the recent past, but rather of forgetting its violence and tumult altogether. Where fashion is concerned, Uzanne observes that in emulating an imagined antiquity, Parisian women in the early s were merely living out a fiction of their own invention, whose ultimate aim was oubli.
New choices in toilette and coiffure helped realize this antique fiction. Furthermore, the names of famous women from antiquity were used to refer to such revealing dresses: With styles, eras and countries mixed in an unheard-of pastiche, fashion came to reflect the social disorder in which Parisians found themselves after the Revolution had done away with traditional class and governmental structures.
The writer expresses great disdain for this new social order. The women of the Directory Nearly all of them were bouncing girls, manlike Former ideals of femininity — charm, grace and intrigue — were replaced by a desire for instant gratification.
As nothing remained of the past, and as it was impossible to improvise in a day a society with its harmonies, its usages, its garments entirely unedited, they borrowed the whole from ancient history and nations which have disappeared All took the disguise they liked; it was a general travesty, an unlimited carnival, an [orgy] without end and without reason.
While the author criticizes Directory-era nostalgia for a re-imagined antique past, he himself indulges in another kind of nostalgia: Social life was still in a state of post-Revolutionary shock as traditional class and gender roles seemed to be gradually deteriorating.
Uzanne observes one important manifestation of this deterioration in particular: Travesty was the rage for a while amidst these goddesses who dreamed of the sad semblances of Androgynes; the mania of wearing breeches became general in the world of these eccentric women.
Some indulgent admirers applauded the innovation, which they attributed to the difficulty of finding a cavalier with whom to loiter through the town.
On the 18th Brumaire the spiritual empire of women resumed by degrees its sweet and consolatory sovereignty in the mundane spheres; drawing-rooms returned into honor, conversation had its turn again: For nearly eight years conversation had been an exile from its native land.
He examines three particularly important salons at length in this chapter: Empress Josephine and the Return of Courtly Luxuries If the Directory was a time when barriers between classes were gradually broken down, the Empire was dominated by their speedy reinstatement, with a few adjustments from Bonaparte I, the new Emperor of France.
Dignities, titles, decorations had to be established amidst a people who for more than fifteen years had fought to proscribe them and had triumphed.
Napoleon, however, who had the art and the power of a just and suitable will, disposed of these difficulties with a high hand. And the most luxurious spender of them all, on whom all other extravagant behaviors were modeled, was Josephine Bonaparte herself.
Indeed, it seems there was little else the Empress cared for but her toilette.The late 19th century saw France embark on a massive program of overseas imperialism — including French Indochina (modern day Cambodia, Vietnam and Laos) and Africa (the Scramble for Africa brought France most of North-West and Central Africa) — which brought it .
During the mid-nineteenth century, etching experienced a widespread revival among artists working in France. Although the medium had been in use for centuries, interest in it had waned by , alongside the invention of lithography and the developing popularity of reproductive engraving.
By the. The Realist movement in French art flourished from about until the late nineteenth century, and sought to convey a truthful and objective vision of contemporary life. Essay Industrialization During The 19th Century was a result of the family labour working on the land (Fulcher et al, ).
Factory production in the 19th century replaced the domestic system and people began to go away to work in factories or mines. (The essay was later re-printed in Nochlin’s famed essay collection The Politics of Vision: Essays on Nineteenth-Century Art and Society.) In the essay, Nochlin traces the ways the Romanticists.
19th Century Essays (Examples) 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Nineteenth Century Painting and Photography Georges Seurat's La Grande Jatte Exhibited at the final Impressionist exhibition in , the painting contrived a number of controversies in 19th century French society.
La Grande Jatte is also considered Seurat's.